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Some scholars view this concentration of multiple functions as a typical and structural feature of the goddess, inherent to her being an expression of the nature of femininity. Others think her military and poliadic qualities arise from her being a fertility goddess who through her function of increasing the numbers of the community became also associated to political and military functions. The rites of the month of February and the Nonae Caprotinae of July 5 offer a depiction of Juno's roles in the spheres of fertility, war, and regality.

In the Roman calendar, February is a month of universal purification, and begins the new year. In book II of his Fasti , Ovid derives the month's name from februae expiations ; [20] lustrations designed to remove spiritual contamination or ritual pollution accumulated in the previous year.

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This is usually understood to be a rite of purification and fertility. The new year began on March 1. The same was celebrated as the birthday of Rome's founder and first king, Romulus , and the peaceful union of Romans and Sabine peoples through treaty and marriage after their war , which was ended by the intervention of women. After Wissowa [25] many scholars have remarked the similarity between the Juno of the Lupercalia and the Juno of Lanuvium Seispes Mater Regina as both are associated with the goat, symbol of fertility.

But in essence there is unity between fertility, regality and purification. Februlis oversees the secundament of the placenta [29] and is strictly associated to Fluvonia, Fluonia , goddess who retains the blood inside the body during pregnancy.

A temple aedes of Juno Lucina was built in BC [33] in the grove sacred to the goddess from early times. Prassede, where inscriptions relating to her cult have been found. In BC the temple was struck by lightning, its gable and doors injured. By 90 BC the temple had fallen into disrepute: in that year it was stained by episodes of prostitution and a bitch delivered her puppies right beneath the statue of the goddess.

Iulius Caesar ordered its restoration. As a rule temples of foreign, imported gods stood outside the pomerium. The alliance of the three aspects of Juno finds a strictly related parallel to the Lupercalia in the festival of the Nonae Caprotinae. On that day the Roman free and slave women picnicked and had fun together near the site of the wild fig caprificus : the custom implied runs, mock battles with fists and stones, obscene language and finally the sacrifice of a male goat to Juno Caprotina under a wildfig tree and with the using of its lymph.

This festival had a legendary aetiology in a particularly delicate episode of Roman history and also recurs at or shortly after a particular time of the year, that of the so-called caprificatio when branches of wild fig trees were fastened to cultivated ones to promote insemination. The historical episode narrated by ancient sources concerns the siege of Rome by the Latin peoples that followed the Gallic sack.

The dictator of the Latins Livius Postumius from Fidenae would have requested the Roman senate that the matronae and daughters of the most prominent families be surrendered to the Latins as hostages. While the senate was debating the issue a slave girl, whose Greek name was Philotis and Latin Tutela or Tutula proposed that she together with other slave girls would render herself up to the enemy camp pretending to be the wives and daughters of the Roman families.

Upon agreement of the senate, the women dressed up elegantly and wearing golden jewellery reached the Latin camp. There they seduced the Latins into fooling and drinking: after they had fallen asleep they stole their swords. Then Tutela gave the convened signal to the Romans brandishing an ignited branch after climbing on the wild fig caprificus and hiding the fire with her mantle.

Asteroid Juno in the birth chart and in synastry

The Romans then irrupted into the Latin camp killing the enemies in their sleep. The women were rewarded with freedom and a dowry at public expenses. Basanoff has argued that the legend not only alludes to sex and fertility in its association with wildfig and goat but is in fact a summary of sort of all the qualities of Juno. In fact the legend presents a heroine, Tutela, who is a slightly disguised representation of the goddess: the request of the Latin dictator would mask an attempted evocatio of the tutelary goddess of Rome.


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Tutela indeed shows regal, military and protective traits, apart from the sexual ones. Moreover, according to Basanoff these too breasts, milky juice, genitalia , present or symbolised in the fig and the goat in general, and here in particular, have an inherently apotropaic value directly related to the nature of Juno.

The occasion of the feria , shortly after the poplifugia , i. Hence the customary battles under the wild figs, the scurrilous language that bring together the second and third function. This festival would thus show a ritual that can prove the trifunctional nature of Juno.

Other scholars [48] limit their interpretation of Caprotina to the sexual implications of the goat, the caprificus and the obscene words and plays of the festival. Under this epithet Juno is attested in many places, notably at Falerii [49] and Tibur. In fact the Juno Curritis of Falerii shows a complex articulated structure closely allied to the threefold Juno Seispes of Lanuvium. Ancient etymologies associated the epithet with Cures , [54] with the Sabine word for spear curis , [55] with currus cart, [56] with Quirites , [57] with the curiae , as king Titus Tatius dedicated a table to Juno in every curia, that Dionysius still saw.

The discovery at Sulmona of a sanctuary of Hercules Curinus lends support to a Sabine origin of the epithet and of the cult of Juno in the curiae. Juno Curitis had a temple on the Campus Martius. Excavations in Largo di Torre Argentina have revealed four temple structures, one of whom temple D or A could be the temple of Juno Curitis. She shared her anniversary day with Juppiter Fulgur, who had an altar nearby. This Juno is placed by ancient sources in a warring context. Palmer accepts Cicero's etymology as a possibility while adding mons mount, hill, verb e-mineo and noun monile referred to the Capitol, place of her cult.

Also perhaps a cultic term or even, as in her temple were kept the Libri Lintei , monere would thence have the meaning of recording: Livius Andronicus identifies her as Mnemosyne. Her dies natalis was on the kalendae of June. Furius Camillus, presumably a son of the great Furius. Livy states he vowed the temple during a war against the Aurunci.

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Modern scholars agree that the origins of the cult and of the temple were much more ancient. Guarducci considers her cult very ancient, identifying her with Mnemosyne as the Warner because of her presence near the auguraculum , her oracular character, her announcement of perils: she considers her as an introduction into Rome of the Hera of Cuma dating to the 8th century. Mac Kay considers the goddess more ancient than her etymology on the testimony of Valerius Maximus who states she was the Juno of Veii.

The sacred geese of the Capitol were lodged in her temple: as they are recorded in the episode of the Gallic siege ca. At Cures she was the tutelary deity of the military chief: as such she is never to be found among Latins. This new quality is apparent in the location of her fanum , her name, her role: 1.

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What Does Juno Mean In Astrology? What It Reveals About Who You'll End Up With

Moneta is, from monere , the Adviser : like Egeria with Numa Tatius's son in law she is associated to a Sabine king; 3. In Dionysius of Halicarnassus the altar-tables of the curiae are consecrated to Juno Curitis to justify the false etymology of Curitis from curiae: the tables would assure the presence of the tutelary numen of the king as an adviser within each curia, as the epithet itself implies. Juno Regina is perhaps the epithet most fraught with questions. While some scholars maintain she was known as such at Rome since the most ancient times as paredra consort of Jupiter in the Capitoline Triad [69] others think she is a new acquisition introduced to Rome after her evocatio from Veii.

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Palmer [71] thinks she is to be identified with Juno Populona of later inscriptions, [72] a political and military poliadic guardian deity who had in fact a place in the Capitoline temple and was intended to represent the Regina of the king. The date of her introduction, though ancient, would be uncertain; she should perhaps be identified with Hera Basilea or as the queen of Jupiter Rex.

The actual epithet Regina could though come from Veii. At Rome this epithet may have been applied to a Juno other than that of the temple on the Aventine built to lodge the evocated Veian Juno as the rex sacrorum and his wife-queen were to offer a monthly sacrifice to Juno in the Regia. This might imply that the prerepublican Juno was royal. Before that time her Roman equivalent was Juno Moneta. Marcel Renard for his part considers her an ancient Roman figure since the title of the Veian Juno expresses a cultic reality that is close to and indeed presupposes the existence at Rome of an analogous character: as a rule it is the presence of an original local figure that may allow the introduction of the new one through evocatio.

Roe D'Albret underlines the role played by Camillus and sees a personal link between the deity and her magistrate.

Juno in Astrology

In his relationship to the goddess he takes the place of the king of Veii. Mater Matuta. Octavianus will repeat the same translation with the statue of the Juno of Perusia in consequence of a dream [78]. That a goddess evoked in war and for political reasons receive the homage of women and that women continue to have a role in her cult is explained by Palmer [79] as a foreign cult of feminine sexuality of Etruscan derivation.

The persistence of a female presence in her cult through the centuries down to the lectisternium of BC, when the matronae collected money for the service, [80] and to the times of Augustus during the ludi saeculares in the sacrifices to Capitoline Juno are proof of the resilience of this foreign tradition. This fact raises the question of understanding why she was able of attracting the devotion of the matronae. The original devotion of the matronae was directed to Fortuna. Camillus was devout to her and to Matuta, both matronal deities.

When he brought Juno Regina from Veii the Roman women were already acquainted with many Junos, while the ancient rites of Fortuna were falling off. Camillus would have then made a political use of the cult of Juno Regina to subdue the social conflicts of his times by attributing to her the role of primordial mother.